Well done Tony Moore of the UK on his debut win - on the Sapper's 'Mystery' composers ODS.
Today's ODS from the Sapper asks you to find a link and then determine which answer is the odd one out!

League Rules

1. Objective

1.1
The objective of 2020 QUIZ League is to defeat as many opponents as possible in head-to-head match play, qualify for the monthly 'Battle Royale' finale, and be crowned 2020 QUIZ League Champion.

Please note: in the early months of 2020 QUIZ, divisional membership will be fluid and the plan is to eventually have everyone in divisions tied to their region/location. However, until we have sufficient people playing, things will just be sorting themselves out toward this eventual objective – i.e. that we have a 'pyramid' crowned with a top division at World level.

2. Sapper Aude

2.1
The administrator of 2020 QUIZ is Sapper Aude. He has permission from the Learned League in the US to form this league and is responsible for all aspects of its operation. All 2020 QUIZ-related issues should be referred to him.
2.2
Sapper Aude is the alter ego of Chris Jones of Quizzing Interactive Ltd and www.quizzing.co.uk. You can learn more about Chris . On occasion, one or more of his fellow Quizzing Interactive Ltd. directors (Jane Allen, Jules Bowes, and or Lucy Allen) or trusted individuals will deputise for or assist Chris in his duties.

3. Logistics

3.1
The 2020 League standard season consists of 20 matches. One match is played each Match Day. The first 19 ('regular') matches are a round-robin against the other players in the same 2020 QUIZ league division. The final match is a play-off between the divisional champions (a simultaneous quiz will be playable for all those people who missed out on qualification for the grand finale).
3.2
Match Days occur only on weekdays (Monday to Friday), and do not occur on certain holidays and other days as designated by Sapper Aude. Unless otherwise indicated by the Sapper, the first match day of a 2020 League is ALWAYS the first working day of the month.
3.3
On each regular 2020 League Match Day, each member faces an opponent in head-to-head play.
3.4
Each player accesses the questions on the official 2020 QUIZ website.
3.5
Players must submit their answers and point assignments (explained below) via the website before the due time (fixed as Midnight Western European Time/UTC+0 at the close of each Match Day – obviously this will equate to different times in various parts of the world). Submissions may be accepted after the due time on some days, if designated in advance by the Sapper, but any submission after Midnight Western European Time (UTC+0) is subject to not being accepted.
3.6
A player wins the match by scoring more points than his opponent (NOT by answering more questions correctly).
3.7
Match results and standings are updated on the 2020 QUIZ website daily.

4. Membership

4.1
2020 QUIZ is a private organization, and as such, is invitation-only. In order to join the league, one must receive an invitation from Sapper Aude. In order to receive an invitation from Sapper Aude, one must be referred by a current member in good standing. At the initial set-up stage, Sapper Aude will have approached responsible individuals in his extensive network of contacts, in order to identify those quizzers of known ability, track records and good standing, who will have been invited to comprise the 2020 QUIZ League's starting membership.
4.2
The league is free to join, and free to play in your first 2020 season. After one's 'rookie' season, membership must be maintained through the payment of dues (paid monthly/bi-annually or annually).
4.3
Modestly priced membership Dues are set by the Sapper. A discounted rate is available to those persons signing up for extended periods, acknowledging the smaller percentage of the whole going to internet companies processing cash transactions. Prices are to be pegged loosely equivalent to a notional monthly expense of buying a medium Extra Value Big Mac Meal at a McDonald's restaurant.
4.4
The Sapper and his associates retain the right to wave membership dues for such deserving persons and for such time periods as they see fit.
4.5
Membership dues for a particular time period cover all 2020 QUIZ activity conducted in that period – i.e. to include the right to participate in One-Day Specials as well as 2020 League play. Any time period paid for officially begins on the first regular match day of the starting 2020 League. E-mail reminders will be sent out prompting due payments and players who are not current with dues on the relevant date will not be eligible to play that season.
4.6
Unless the Sapper or his associates make an exception in any particular case, a person whose membership lapses will lose their place in any division or divisional hierarchy hitherto earned.
4.7
All members are subject to the same league rules, contained herein, and agree to the terms and conditions of 2020 QUIZ Membership upon commencement of free play/play after payment of dues.

5. Structure of the Match

5.1
Soon after the conclusion of each Match Day (approx. 2:00am Western European Time), the eight questions for the next Match Day will become available on the 2020 QUIZ web site.
5.2
The questions will conform to a pattern such that a broad range of general knowledge is tested over the course of a 2020 League season, with information culled from a wide range of sources. The questions will be presented in such a way as to offer broadly fair play across the globe, no one country or culture appearing unduly dominant.
5.3
Players must submit their answers and point assignments for their opponents before the due time, which is Midnight Western European Time at the close of each Match Day (that is, if Match Day 4 is on a Tuesday, the questions are due by midnight Tuesday Western European Time).

5a. Answering

5a.1
Correct spelling is not required. A 'sounds-like' guideline will be used for misspelled answers - if an answer, when spoken aloud, is the correct answer, then the answer will be accepted as correct. You may answer in your own language, if you do not know the English word for an answer, but please do not use accents on your letters
5a.1.1
If answering using words in a language other than English, or giving the local title of a film or book etc., you need to draw attention to this. Add a note to EACH such answer regarding your language/country of residence. The onus is on you to alert the Sapper. With the number of first languages used in 2020Quiz into double figures, the Sapper can’t be expected to spot when and what languages foreign to him are being used.
5a.2
For questions which require a person's name for an answer, the last name is required, and only the last name is required, unless otherwise specified.
5a.2.1
If a question asks for a name, and a player submits the correct last name with an incorrect first name (e.g. Sir Winifred Churchill), the answer is incorrect. Likewise, if a player submits the first and last name in reverse order (e.g. Bishop Tutu Desmond), the answer is incorrect. Players should also remain careful in connection with names such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. (Ludwig) Mies is correct, (Ludwig) van der Rohe is not!
5a.2.2
The Sapper will be more lenient where the question asks you to identify a woman who has been/is married. Unless otherwise stated, ‘maiden names’ (or former married names even) are accepted, and where a woman uses a combination of surnames, the Sapper will be generous if your answer gets the order wrong - so long as this does not confuse the person asked about with someone else. For example, a question asking you to identify Shirley Temple Black will be marked correct if you answer Black Temple, or Black. Likewise, if you answer a question about Angela Merkel (née Kasner) with Angela Kasner or Angela Sauer (her current husband’s surname) the Sapper will be inclined to mark you correct.
5a.2.3
The Sapper is aware also that in some countries people can take the names of both parents (e.g. Spain and Cuba). So long as you have the name the person commonly uses in your answer, you will be marked correct if you quote both but in the wrong order; so Pablo Picasso Ruiz is OK (i.e. in place of Pablo Ruiz y Picasso – note Picasso comes from his mother’s name!). But as people sometimes change their styling – e.g. Fidel Castro’s younger brother was once commonly known as Raúl Ruz, using his mother’s name to distinguish him from the Great Leader, but since becoming the boss is now known as Raúl Castro - the Sapper will judge each case on its merits, trying to remain consistent of course
5a.3
For questions seeking a number of something from a larger lot, the first (number) are accepted, the rest ignored.
Example: Name one of the original 13 British colonies that became the United States of America.
Answer: "Delaware, Illinois" This would be accepted
Answer: "Illinois, Delaware" This would not be accepted
Example: Name two of the Beatles.
Answer: "Lennon, Harrison, Churchill" This would be accepted
Answer: "Lennon, Churchill, Harrison" This would not be accepted
5a.3.1
Rule 5.3 also applies to questions to which there is only one answer, but more than one is given. The first answer is accepted, all subsequent are ignored.
Example: What is the capital of Spain?
Answer: "Madrid or Barcelona" This would be accepted
Answer: "Barcelona or Madrid" This would not be accepted
5a.3.2
Rule 5a.3 does not apply to questions that ask for all the members of a series, but more than the series is provided (regardless of whether the specific number in the series is provided in the question).
Example: Identify all of the U.S. states that begin with the letter 'C'.
Answer: "California, Connecticut, Colorado" This is the correct answer
Answer: "California, Connecticut, Colorado, Canada" This would not be accepted
5a.3.3
Rule 5a.3 does not apply to questions seeking one of two alternative answers where a player needlessly offers both. Where a player gives a two-part answer BOTH parts must be correct. Such questions are NOT intended to offer players ‘two bites of the cherry’. A player’s response will be deemed incorrect if either part offered is wrong, even where the first part of their answer, on its own, would otherwise be correct.
Example: Identify the Greek hero who killed Hector in single-combat, or the body part he gives his name to?
Answer: "Achilles / Achilles Tendon” This is an acceptable answer
Answer: "Achilles / Achilles Heel". This would not be accepted (“Achilles heel” is a metaphor, not a body part).
5a.4
Players may not use any resources, other than one's brain (and perhaps pencil and paper, as appropriate) to acquire answers or help in obtaining answers. This includes the 2020 QUIZ website itself (so, referring back to past questions/answers is forbidden). See Section 17. Cheating

6. Assigning Points for Your Opponent

6.1
One special aspect of 2020 QUIZ is the element of defence. It is possible (and not uncommon) for a player to answer fewer questions than an opponent but still win. This is done through assigning point values for each question for your opponent.
6.2
As a player, during a match you must not only answer the eight daily questions, you must assign a point value for each of the questions for your opponent. That is, you must evaluate the difficulty of the questions, rate your opponent's ability to answer them (their profile appears next to the questions to help your decision-making – just click on their name), and assign points to them accordingly.
6.3
Point values are assigned as follows: One question worth THREE (3) points, Three questions worth TWO (2) points, Three questions worth ONE (1) point, One question worth ZERO (0) points. This gives a total of 12 (twelve) points.

7. Scoring

7.1
Scores are based on the questions that you answer correctly, and the number of points your opponent assigned to each one.
7.2
The maximum number of points possible in a match is 12 (twelve).
7.3
For example, let's say you answer questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 correct, missing 5 to 8. And let's say your opponent assigned point values for the eight questions of 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1 and 0, respectively. In this case, your total for the match would be 8.
Q. Correct? Points
Q1 Yes 1
Q2 Yes 2
Q3 Yes 3
Q4 Yes 2
Q5 No 1
Q6 No 0
Q7 No 0
Q8 No 0
TOTAL 8
In this match, your scoreline would be 8(4), i.e. 8 match points from four correct answers. If we suppose your opponent correctly answered questions 1 to 5 correctly, and your assignments for them were 0, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 2, 1 then their scoreline would be 6(5). You would win the match 8(4) to 6(5). Even though they successfully answered more questions, you scored more points thanks to superior defensive play.
7.4
If you forget to assign points for your opponent, or if your point assignments do not total 12 (or total 12 but are not assigned 3-2-2-2-1-1-1-0), then the default point assignments will take effect. The default point assignments define how many points a player receives for a given number of correct answers in the absence of defence from an opponent, and are outlined below.
Number of Correct Answers Default Marks
0 0
1 2
2 3
3 5
4 6
5 8
6 9
7 10
8 12
For example, if you fail to assign points and you opponent answers 3 correctly, they will receive five points.

8. Standings

8.1
At any time, you can view updated 2020 QUIZ standings on the official 2020 QUIZ website.
8.2
At such time as we have promotion and relegation (to be announced before the start of the 2020 League season first involved) your place in the relevant season end standings determines whether you advance to the next higher division or fall to the next lower (see below). And, in the highest (Championship) division, whether you become 2020 QUIZ Champion.
8.3
A player's place in the standings depends on the number of points they earn in match play.
8.4
Players earn two points for a victory, and one point for a tie, zero points for a loss, and lose one point for a forfeit loss.
8.5
The first standings tiebreaker is MPD: Match Points Differential (the difference between the number of points scored and the number of points allowed in matches). The second tiebreaker is TMP (total match points, the cumulative number of points scores in matches); the third tiebreaker is FL (forfeit losses — the number of matches you have lost due to forfeit, the fewer the better), the fourth tiebreaker is Wins, the fifth tiebreaker is head-to-head (if two players are tied -- if more than two, then this tiebreak is skipped), the sixth is coin flip, the seventh is Sapper's whim.

9. Divisions

9.1
2020 QUIZ will eventually be divided into regions (such as Americas, Europe, Asia, Oceania), each with a variable number of divisions, called 'League 1', 'League 2' etc.. So, however, initially, as the site matures and we move up to expected population levels, the league will comprise a series of level divisions, each of 20 players, with a single champion crowned by virtue of the 2020 League's 20th match day Battle Royale (not to be confused with standard One-Day Specials, which is contest anyone and everyone can play in – i.e. there's no prior qualification required, as in Battles Royale).
9.2
The names of the regions and division will evolve with time but in all cases will reflect the origin of the players making up its constituent division(s). In the early stages two or more different nationalities may find themselves playing in the same division. Wherever possible the mix will reflect the players all coming from the same region/continent.
Note: The intention is to avoid players being faced by opponents with a marked cultural advantage according to how the questions fall (e.g. it could be perceived as unfair if a Canadian and Indian were playing in the same division during a month in which a 'Bollywood' question and one about Sri Lankan history were both asked – whereas if everyone in the division was from North America, or from the sub-continent, the effect of any such potential 'bias' is minimal by comparison).
9.2.1
All divisions, except new ones (which will be indicated by name) will be populated by returning players – in some cases with missing players replaced by newcomers or players moved in from another division which is, by reason of a lot of departing players, being broken up.
9.3
At such point as we have a 2020 QUIZ Championship division, it will contain exactly 20 players.
9.4
Wherever possible all divisions will contain exactly 20 players. So, however, where this is not possible, in all cases a division will have an even number of competitors only.
9.4.1
Where a division has less than 20 players some of the fixtures toward the end of the 2020 season will be repeats of those at the start.
9.5
Players only face opponents from within their own division.
9.6
There is only one champion per division (i.e. no ties or co-champions).
9.7
Until such time as we have universal relegation/promotion across the regions there will be no championship division. There may, however, be regional and national champions and 2020 QUIZ champions decided and declared by reference to results in the one-day Battle Royale finale. This finale will take the same format as a One-Day Special, although it is uniquely limited to divisional winners. All regular One-Day Specials are open to all.
9.8
It should be noted that regular One-Day Special quizzes can and will take place on the same days as 2020 League match days. So, for example, on Day 2 of the current league season, there may also be a One-Day Special running on the subject of 'Asian Geography'. Any results or outcomes from any One-Day Special are entirely distinct from that day's 2020 League match.

10. Promotion/Relegation – future provision

10.1
At the end of each 2020 League season, a certain number of top and bottom players in each division will be promoted/relegated to the next higher/lower division in their national/regional cluster.
10.2
If sufficient players from one country are participating their divisions may be formed into a national cluster (according to the Sapper's design), and the top player in their top division may, at the end of a season, be granted direct promotion to the (Global) Championship division alongside top players from other regions. So, however, in other cases it may be deemed appropriate to place that top player into a (top) regional division, from which access to the Championship division follows.
10.3
At such time as promotion and relegation is to be implemented, full rules and details of divisional structures etc. will be announced in advance.

11. Rookies

11.1
All new applicants join a waiting list to be placed into a 2020 League division. They will be allocated a place automatically, and in turn, according to date and time of their registration (i.e. it is strictly first come first served). So, however, and only once they have been placed into an active (or about to become active) division, the Sapper may transfer that player to another division - either to fill a vacancy or to better place that person among competitors of their own nationality/background. But in no case will the Sapper act so as to allow people to queue jump those on a waiting list.
11.1.1
People on a waiting list to join a division will not be able to participate in the current month's 2020 season.
11.2
Exceptionally, if and when it proves both necessary and possible, the first person on the waiting list may be moved DURING a season into an existing division to fill a vacancy that has unexpectedly arisen. However, any such option available to the Sapper will not be exercised where the majority of players in the target division oppose it – i.e. upon being asked if such a move was to be made, the majority of those responding are against it. For example, if a player for some reason has to drop out of the league at the mid-way point, it may appear fairer to players in that division that those persons who had yet to face the person forced to drop out should really face an actual person in head to head matches rather simply receive automatic forfeit wins.
11.2.1
Any person at the head of the waiting list who receives a 'battlefield promotion' of the sort detailed in 11.2 will still be eligible for their subsequent full first complete season's play free of charge.
11.3
It is 2020 QUIZ policy that all new players adopt as their 'Player Name' a combination including their last name and first initial -- e.g. JonesC, AllenJ.
11.4
In the case where a joining player's PlayerName is the same as one that already exists (i.e. there is already a player with that same last name and first initial) -- and in select instances where this is not necessarily the case -- a new player has the option of either taking the default PlayerName with a middle initial appended (e.g. AllenJE), a number appended (e.g. JonesC2), or adding a descriptive word to the end of the default PlayerName (e.g. JonesC Manchester). In order to adhere to the spirit and rectitude of league honour and the 2020 QUIZ Privacy Policy (link to privacy policy), all deviations from 11.3 are at the discretion of Sapper Aude.
11.5
In order to receive an invitation and subsequently join the 2020 QUIZ, all new players must be referred by a current player, who will vouch for the rookie's honesty and integrity. 2020 QUIZ is invitation-only.

12. Re-entry

12.1
If a 2020 QUIZ player drops out of the League and then decides to return, they will join the waiting list. At such time as structured promotion/relegation is in play, this section of the rules may be amended.

13. 2020 QUIZ Growth and Expansion

13.1
As the overall player roster grows, and rookies are brought into divisions, the plan is for the structure to expand in a pyramid fashion.

14. Disputes

14.1
In 2020 QUIZ, all disputes are settled by Sapper Aude, who has final and absolute say on all things. This includes any changes to the rules or structure of the game which may occur at any time.
14.2
Concerning disputes over the validity of answers, the Sapper will hear complaints, but only in the rarest and most overtly egregious circumstances will he change the outcome of a match after-the-fact. Generally speaking, match scoring and the veracity of answers must be accepted as is. This rule is known as the 'Practicality Clause'.

15. Practicality Clause

15.1
Sapper Aude reserves the right to decline to act on any complaints or disputes. If you think the answer for a given question is incorrect or incomplete, you could very well be right, but it may not be changed after the fact.
15.2
You might want to think of this as the equivalent of a missed offside decision in a football match or a bad call by the umpire in a cricket Test Match.
15.3
The Sapper regrets the heartache and anger that this may cause. Seriously, though, it is the intention of Sapper Aude that fairness rules in all aspects of the league, but all must accept that there will invariably be circumstances where apparently legitimate disputes and issues cannot or will not be addressed to the satisfaction of everyone. In reality, these occurrences will be rare, and Sapper Aude will work hard to minimize them. And he will never wilfully ignore a genuine complaint or dispute.

16. Cheating

16.1
The number one rule of 2020 QUIZ: Players must not use any external resources to acquire answers to Match Day (or any other) questions.
16.2
This includes, but is not limited to, asking others, using the internet or any computer for research purposes (this includes the 2020 QUIZ website itself, e.g. while it is ok to look at an opponent's stats, trawling through past questions is not), using books or any other reference materials of any kind, using musical instruments or any other tools or implements. Pencil and paper are allowed.
16.3
The Sapper will also act against any player found attempting to gain an unfair advantage by improper use of the Internet in general, or the 2020Quiz website in particular. It will be for the Sapper to determine what constitutes ‘improper use’. Parties the Sapper finds guilty of trying to gain an unfair advantage via ‘improper use’, or who are found to have otherwise acted contrary to the spirit of fair play, can expect to find themselves permanently excluded from the 2020Quiz community.

17. The Wagor Proviso

17.1
Any player who is caught cheating or is believed (on the balance of probabilities) to be cheating will be asked to withdraw from 2020 QUIZ and will not be permitted to return. Any player who is asked to leave the league will have his or her membership dues refunded on a pro-rata basis.
17.2
While there is obviously no way to monitor the honesty of all players, and while 2020 QUIZ is not yet technologically advanced enough to prevent cheating (and will never be), it is hoped that the common integrity and spirit of fairness shared by all in the 2020 QUIZ Community will keep the scourge of cheating at bay. We are greatly fortified in our belief that we can do this by looking to the US where Learned League similarly relies on players' integrity – and it has thrived for many years.
17.3
Since we expect to be blessed with the participation of some of the world's acknowledged best players in 2020 QUIZ, it should not be too difficult (by simple comparison) to identify those persons whose performance here consistently outstrips that which they display in instances where undetected cheating is not so easily undertaken. Persons who typically struggle to make any impression in a conventional quiz event who then here outperform some of the acknowledged 'gods' will stand out like sore thumbs and can expect to be 'quizzed offline' either by Sapper Aude, or by one of his trusted deputies – and at such time as they are 'examined', well they better be good, or they will be run out of town!

18. Forfeiting

18.1
Forfeiting will be frowned upon most mightily in 2020 QUIZ. Its very existence compromises the integrity and validity of the league, and all must strive to keep forfeiting at a minimum.
18.2
At such time as a divisional pyramid hierarchy is in place, i.e. with relegation and promotion, players with 3 or more forfeits in a season may find themselves faced by automatic relegation, regardless of their actual finishing position. Sanctions will be applied according to the Sapper's discretion.
18.3
Any player who knows he will not be available on a given Match Day in the future can contact Sapper Aude to explain their situation and, subject to acceptance that the absence is unavoidably appropriate, and while the match will still be forfeit, that day will not count towards consideration of any sanction provided by 18.2. Likewise, if some unavoidable and unexpected family emergency etc. has caused the forfeit(s), Sapper Aude can be relied upon to be compassion personified once the situation is explained to him afterwards.

19. Trash Talking

19.1
Trash talking, and other similar childish and unsportsmanlike behaviour, is highly encouraged in 2020 QUIZ. Not really, but spirited fun is.

20. Regular Season Awards

20.1
While the highest and most hallowed of all 2020 QUIZ awards is the Sapper Aude Cup, awarded to the 2020 QUIZ Champion, there are also awards bestowed upon players for exceptional performance:
20.2
DonJuan Trophy: Awarded to the league's top scorer (Total Match Points).
20.3
Vauban Cup: Awarded to the league's most outstanding defensive performer.